(2) Ships on the Horizon (ships appear as if they “emerge from the waves” because the world is not flat).
(3) Varying Star Constellations (This observation was originally made by Aristotle (384-322 BCE).
(4) Shadows, Sticks & Sundials (Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) used this principle to calculate the circumference of the Earth quite accurately).
(5) Seeing Farther from Higher (This phenomena is caused by the curvature of the Earth, and would not happen if the Earth was flat).
(6) Fly on a Plane (we now have planes that can circle the entire Earth without stopping).
(7) Look at Other Planets (In 1610, Galileo observed the moons of Jupiter rotating around it).
(9) The Center of Gravity (Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation).
(10) Images from Space.
The Flat Earth Fixion
"A 'Fixion' is a fiction, an untruth that is true or posited as truth, a narrativization of the fix, so the liar of the paradox is given time to elaborate both the false as true and the true as false - that is the dialectic. The production of language goes into infinite regression and self-proliferation, so the conditions that are proposed for thought turn out themselves to be unthinkable." - Poetics of the Common Knowledge
Earth curves approximately 6 feet in 9 miles.
According to Airliners.net, Aerolineas Argentinas operates the world's southernmost (scheduled) commercial route in the world, from BUE (Buenos Aires) to AKL (Auckland). Mount Erebus is currently the most active volcano in Antarctica and is the current eruptive zone of the Erebus hotspot. That's the only reason why commercial flights do not fly directly over the South Pole. In other words... it's not safe or smart to fly over the South Pole!
"Quantum Gravity, broadly construed, is a physical theory (still ‘under construction’) incorporating both the principles of general relativity and quantum theory. Such a theory is expected to be able to provide a satisfactory description of the microstructure of spacetime at the so-called Planck scale, at which all fundamental constants of the ingredient theories, c (the velocity of light in vacuo), ℏ (Planck's constant), and G (Newton's constant), come together to form units of mass, length, and time. This scale is so remote from current experimental capabilities that the empirical testing of quantum gravity proposals along standard lines is rendered near-impossible.
In most, though not all, theories of quantum gravity, the gravitational field itself is also quantized. Since the contemporary theory of gravity, general relativity, describes gravitation as the curvature of spacetime by matter and energy, a quantization of gravity seemingly implies some sort of quantization of spacetime geometry. Insofar as all extant physical theories rely on a classical spacetime background, this presents not only extreme technical difficulties, but also profound methodological and ontological challenges for the philosopher and the physicist. Though quantum gravity has been the subject of investigation by physicists for over eighty years, philosophers have only just begun to investigate its philosophical implications." - stanford.edu
THE BEDFORD LEVEL EXPERIMENT
The Bedford Level Experiment is a series of observations carried out along a six-mile (9.7 km) length of the Old Bedford River on the Bedford Level, Norfolk, England, during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was an attempt to determine the shape of the Earth. Early results seemed to prove the Earth to be flat, but most later attempts to reproduce the observations firmly support that the Earth is a sphere. At the point chosen for all the experiments the river is a slow-flowing drainage canal running in an uninterrupted straight line for a six-mile (9.7 km) stretch to the north-east of the village of Welney. The most famous of the observations, and the one that was taught in schools until photographs of the Earth from space became available, involved a set of three poles fixed at equal height above water level along this length. As the surface of the water was assumed to be level, the discovery that the middle pole, when viewed carefully through a theodolite, was almost three feet (0.91 m) higher than the poles at each end was finally accepted as a new proof that the surface of the earth was indeed curved.
WMAP confirmed that the universe should obey the rules of Euclidean geometry.
The Galileo Spacecraft was launched on Oct. 18, 1989, carried by Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. It launched the first probe into Jupiter, directly measuring its atmosphere. On September 21, 2003, after 14 years in space and 8 years in the Jovian system, Galileo's mission was terminated by sending the orbiter into Jupiter's atmosphere at a speed of over 30 miles per second.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was a pivotal figure in the development of modern astronomy, both because of his contributions directly to astronomy, and because of his work in physics and its relation to astronomy. He provided the crucial observations that proved the Copernican hypothesis, and also laid the foundations for a correct understanding of how objects moved on the surface of the earth (dynamics) and of gravity. One could, with considerable justification, view Galileo as the father of both modern astronomy and modern physics.
In 1957, the world was surprised to see the Soviets launch the first satellite into orbit, with most expecting the USA to be the first to do so. The satellite, named Sputnik 1, transmitted a simple radio signal back to earth for 21 days and remained in orbit for a further 6 months. The USA responded to this great technological achievement by making the conquest of space a top national priority. This marked the beginning of the "space race".
Why don't we feel Earth move?
So what about the question of the night sky, and why it appears to rotate the way it does?
There are two straightforward explanations for this, and from this observation alone, they’re indistinguishable from one another.
The entire sky — and all the stars in it — spins around the Earth with a period of 24 hours, causing the stars to change position as we observe it from Earth.
The entire sky is — to the best of our observations — stationary, and appears to spin because the Earth is rotating beneath it.
If the Earth were truly stationary, then the Sun would have to move to different locations relative to the night sky throughout the year. In addition to its once-a-day orbit around the Earth, it would have to migrate in one additional circle relative to the background stars each year, in order to explain why the visible constellations vary throughout the seasons.
On the other hand, if the Earth is allowed to move, then it can also move around the Sun, explaining why different constellations appear in the night sky at different times of the year.
In the Earth-is-stationary model, the Sun needs to change its location in the sky significantly throughout the year: in addition to its once-a-day journey around the Earth, it needs to change its location relative to the celestial sphere by a whopping 47 degrees every six months. Why the Sun moves in this path so slowly relative to the celestial sphere but so quickly relative to Earth is not explained in this model.
On the other hand, if the Earth is moving, this would result simply from the Earth moving around the Sun while it rotates on its tilted axis. If the Earth is the moving thing, its rotation and its revolution are allowed to be separate quantities, which explain the vastly different timescales for days (the period of Earth’s rotation) and years (the period of Earth’s revolution).
If you insist that the Earth remain stationary and the celestial sphere rotates, you can still make a working model for the Earth, Sun, Moon and stars, but it requires you to put the motions of the Sun (an extra revolution tilted at 23 degrees relative to the celestial sphere per year) and the Moon (an extra revolution tilted at 5 degrees relative to the Sun per lunar month) by hand, with no physical explanation for these motions.
But if you allow the Earth to move, you can not only explain the daily motion of the stars, Moon, and Sun relative to the Earth’s sky by the Earth’s rotation, you can explain the lunar and solar motions relative to the rest of the sky as revolutionary orbits due to the force of gravity.
In classical mechanics, a "reactive centrifugal force" forms part of an action–reaction pair with a centripetal force.
In accordance with Newton's first law of motion, an object moves in a straight line in the absence of any external forces acting on the object. A curved path may however ensue when a physical acts on it; this force is often called a centripetal force, as it is directed toward the center of curvature of the path. Then in accordance with Newton's third law of motion, there will also be an equal and opposite force exerted by the object on some other object, such as a constraint that forces the path the curved, and this reaction force, the subject of this article, is sometimes called a reactive centrifugal force"', as it is directed in the opposite direction of the centripetal force.
Unlike the inertial force or fictitious force known as centrifugal force, which always exists in addition to the reactive force in the rotating frame of reference, the reactive force is a real Newtonian force that is observed in any reference frame. The two forces will only have the same magnitude in the special cases where circular motion arises and where the axis of rotation is the origin of the rotating frame of reference. It is the reactive force that is the subject of this article.
Hey Flat Earthers... NASA is Not the only space agency on earth! What about these?
RUSSIAN FEDERAL SPACE AGENCY
EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY
CANADIAN SPACE AGENCY
LITHUANIAN SPACE ASSOCIATION
SRI LANKA SPACE AGENCY
THE HUNGARIAN SPACE OFFICE
ISRAEL SPACE AGENCY
INSTITUTE FOR ASTRONOMY, ASTROPHYSICS,
SPACE APPLICATIONS & REMOTE SENSING, GREECE
BELARUS SPACE AGENCY
UK SPACE AGENCY
CHINA NATIONAL SPACE ADMINISTRATION
AZERBAIJAN NATIONAL AEROSPACE AGENCY
BRAZILIAN SPACE AGENCY
CROATIAN SPACE AGENCY
JAPAN AEROSPACE EXPLORATION AGENCY
STATE SPACE AGENCY OF UKRAINE
KAZAKHSTAN NATIONAL SPACE AGENCY
NORTH KOREAN COMMITTEE OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY
Are they all lying too?
1: a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted.
2: an official system of principles or tenets concerning faith, morals, behavior, etc., as of a church.
3: a specific tenet or doctrine authoritatively laid down, as by a church.
4: prescribed doctrine proclaimed as unquestionably true by a particular group.
5: a settled or established opinion, belief, or principle.
Flat Earth: a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted. Otherwise known as DOGMA!
1. logically connected; consistent.
1. the means by which the presence, quality, or genuineness of anything is determined; a means of trial.
1. the act of offering or suggesting something to be considered, accepted, adopted, or done.
1. to take into account; consider.
1. conforming to fact or truth; free from error; accurate.
1. a fundamental, primary, or general law or truth from which others are derived.
1. a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable.